Columns: Short columns (struts); Intermediate columns and slender columns. Fully restrained, partially restrained and unrestrained columns.

1.1.      Analysis of Columns: By Euler’s Theoretical Formulae and Empirical Methods such

as: Gordon Rankine’s formula; Johnson’s Parabolic and Straight line formula.

1.2.      Loading and Bending of Columns:

Symmetrical and eccentric loading of columns and bending about one axis (uni-axial bending) and bending about two axes (tri-axial bending).

             Analysis of Trusses and Frames.

 2.1.        Determination of degree of indeterminacy or redundancy of trusses and frames.

2.2         Analysis of Perfect or Statically Determinate Trusses and Frames.

Calculation of external support reactions, internal forces (tension and compression) and deformation in bar members, using both analytical methods of joints ( FV =

0; Fh= 0) and method of sections or moment ( M = 0) as well as graphical methods.

             Advanced Treatment of Elastic Bending Theory of Beams: Shear center; unsymmetrical bending; curved beams.

             Biaxial and Tri-axial state of stress: transformation of stresses; Mohr’s circle;

            Failure Theories.

            Creep, Fatigue, Fracture and Stress concentration.



Level of Study: 300 Level