Atomic Nature of Matter, Discovery of the Electron Quantization of Electricity,
(Millikan’s Experiment) Thompson’s Cathode Rays and Determination of the Specific
Charge (е/m), Structure of an Atom, Atomic Models.
Thompson’s Model: Rutherford Model,
Bohrs’ Model: The Hydrogen Atom, Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom, Ionization
Potential, Atomic Spectra.
The Nucleus – Structure of the Nucleus, Size and Binding of the Nucleus, Binding
Fraction, Packing Fraction of the Nucleus.
X-Rays – Nature And Production of X-Rays, Properties of X-Rays, Characteristics of XRays,
Bragg’s Equation, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Absorption, (Compton Effect, Photo
Electricity, Pair Production) (Continuous and Line Spectra). Moseley’s Equation,
Application of X-Rays.
Planck’s Quantum Theory, de – Brag lies Hypothesis Wave – Particle Duality.
Radioactivity – Natural and Artificial Radioactivity, Radioactive Emissions (α, β, γ-
Rays). Radioactive (α, β, γ- Decays, Electron-Capture) Radiation Hazard Radiation
Detections, Applications of Radioactivity.

Level of Study: 100 Level