Brief recaptitulation of the functionality of the kidneys. Renal handling of electrolytes. Current concepts of concentration and dilution of urine. The rennin angiotensin system. Renal disorders. Physiologic anatomy of the kidney, renal circulation and autoregulation. Glomerular filtration. Tubular transport. Urine formation: counter-current system. Water volume and ionic regulation. Acid-base balance. Micturition. Abnormalities of renal function. Endocrine functions of the kidneys. The skin: functional anatomy, temperature regulations; abnormalities of temperature regulation. Metabolism: factors regulating metabolism, conditions for measuring basal metabolic rate.