Physiologic anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract. Review of smooth muscle function. Secretions in the G.I.T. and their control. Movements of the gastrointestinal tract. Digestion and absorption of various food substances. Liver and its functions. Disorders of G.I.T. The gut as an endocrine organ.

Brief recaptitulation of the functionality of the kidneys. Renal handling of electrolytes. Current concepts of concentration and dilution of urine. The rennin angiotensin system. Renal disorders. Physiologic anatomy of the kidney, renal circulation and autoregulation. Glomerular filtration. Tubular transport. Urine formation: counter-current system. Water volume and ionic regulation. Acid-base balance. Micturition. Abnormalities of renal function. Endocrine functions of the kidneys.

Endocrine system: introduction and neuroendocrine relationship. Hypothalamo-Pituitary axis, endocrine glands; normal, hypo- and hyper-functions. Other hormones of some clinical importance. Physiologic anatomy of male and female reproductive system. Male and female sex hormones. Cyclicity of hormone secretion in females. Physiology of contraception. Assisted fertility techniques. Menstrual cycle, conception, placenta, parturition, lactation, menopause. Other hormones and their clinical importance

Autonomic nervous system.

Synapse; morphology, synaptic transmission, procession of data, neurotransmitter in the CNS. Motor division of the CNS; morphology, motor cortex, basal ganglia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal system. Cerebellum, Locomotion and maintenance of posture; spinal and body-orienting reflexes, brainstem control, muscle spindle, muscle tone, Pathophysiology of pain, Hypothalamus and limbic system. Higher functions of the nervous system. Special senses.

Experiments on blood physiology, Experiments on nerves and muscles, Experiments on cardiovascular system, Experiments on respiratory system, Experiments on Git, metabolism and nutrition, Experiments on renal physiology

Experiments on reproductive physiology, Experiments on special senses, Experiments on nervous system

Level of Study: 200 Level