Physiologic anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract. Review of smooth muscle function. Secretions in the G.I.T. and their control. Movements of the gastrointestinal tract. Digestion and absorption of various food substances. Liver and its functions. Disorders of G.I.T. The gut as an endocrine organ.

Brief recaptitulation of the functionality of the kidneys. Renal handling of electrolytes. Current concepts of concentration and dilution of urine. The rennin angiotensin system. Renal disorders. Physiologic anatomy of the kidney, renal circulation and autoregulation. Glomerular filtration. Tubular transport. Urine formation: counter-current system. Water volume and ionic regulation. Acid-base balance. Micturition. Abnormalities of renal function. Endocrine functions of the kidneys.

Endocrine system: introduction and neuroendocrine relationship. Hypothalamo-Pituitary axis, endocrine glands; normal, hypo- and hyper-functions. Other hormones of some clinical importance. Physiologic anatomy of male and female reproductive system. Male and female sex hormones. Cyclicity of hormone secretion in females. Physiology of contraception. Assisted fertility techniques. Menstrual cycle, conception, placenta, parturition, lactation, menopause. Other hormones and their clinical importance

Level of Study: 200 Level