Principles of analytical techniques in clinical chemistry- devising new techniques, biological trials and tests for acceptability. Solid/dry phase chemistry, dipstick technology, thin film technology, immobilized enzymes – analytical techniques for qualitative and quantitative determination of enzymes, hormones, proteins, lipids, trace elements, non-protein nitrogen, volumetric analysis- partition, adsorption, gel filtration, ion exchange and gas liquid chromatography. Electrochemical analysis – principles of potentiometric analysis. Fractionation of proteins – fractional precipitation (salting-out), Chromatographic and electrophoretic procedures. Protein precipitants – mode of action and choice in analytical procedures.