Traditional and S.I. units in clinical chemistry; Reference values: Gastric function test: agent for Gastric stimulation. Ward procedures and laboratory investigation of Gastric secretion: Intestinal function tests; Digestion and absorption; cause of Malabsorption. Laboratory investigation of malabsorption. Renal functions of the kidney; measurement of Renal plasma flow, Glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine clearance, Insulin clearance, concentration and dilution tests, urinary, acidification tests, urine specific gravity/osmolarity. Dye Excretion Test. Water and Electrolyte Status. Blood buffers. Transport of blood gases; Assessment of acid/base status. Lipids: definition and types of lipids; formation of free fatty acids, Ketone bodies and lactate; measurement of plasma lipids and lipoprotein. Plasma proteins and physiology functions; factors affecting synthesis and catabolism. Methods for the determining of total protein in serum. Carbohydrate metabolism; blood glucose homeostasis. Hyperglycemia diabetes mellitus- its cause and investigation: Hypoglycemia- types, causes and investigation.