Size classification: Size classification: Particle shape and size; sieving and sifting; determination of particles size.

Comminution: General principles. Size distribution during communition and importance of fine particle in pharmacy.

 Communiting machines

 Mixing: Definition and objective of the mixing process, mixing process and types of mixtures.

The scale of scrutiny.

The mixing of solids; some properties of random mixture. The degree of mixing and de-mixing of powders.

Assessment of degree of mixing.

 Drying of solids; the rate of drying and the distribution of moisture in solids. The three stages of moisture distribution in a drying particulate bed. Factors involved in the selection of drying methods and choice of drying equipment; freeze drying.

  Flow properties of powders: Methods for the determination of angle of repose; factors affecting the angle of repose; flow of powders through tubes and holes; cohesive pharmaceutical powders; experimental methods used for measuring the “cohesiveness” of powder beds; e.g., the split method of Tideswell and Dodyfield and the Ashton et al apparatus; factors affecting the tensile strength of powders, factors affecting the flow properties of powders e.g., Effect of particle shape and size; moisture; glidants and temperature.

 Granulation and Tablet Technology: Reasons for and methods of granulation; essential granule properties. Tablet manufacture; types of compressed tablets; formulation of tablets; excipients; the compression of granules, compression of weight and pressure; principles of the operation of single punch and multiple (rotary) punch tablet machines; problems encountered during tablet manufacture and ways to remedy them.

 Tablet coating: Types of coating materials and methods -pan, sugar, film and enteric coating; requirements for core tablets and coating of granules; fluidized bed and compression coating.

 Capsules: Hard gelatin capsules; materials for capsules; method of capsule production; capsule filling; equipment and operations; formulation and finishing of capsules; soft gelatin capsules; nature of the soft gelatin shells and of the capsule content.


Level of Study: 400 Level