Suspension: factors affecting the preparation of a physically stable suspension: flocculated
and deflocculated system: caking and resuspension; sedimentation, behaviour of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions: pharmaceutical applications of suspensions; colouring agents used in the formulation of suspensions.
Emulsions and emulsifications: types of emulsion and testing of emulsion types: theories of emulsions (Bancroft's Harkens oriented wedge and the complex film theories); emulsifying agents and their classification; methods available for the preparation of emulsion; preservation and stability of emulsions; concept of hydrophile-lipophile-balance (HLB); formation of emulsions by HLB methods: methods for determining HLB numbers;
Semi-solid emulsion: Creams-types of preparation; Ointments types of ointment bases; Pastes
their bases and methods of preparation; Jellies and Poultice e.g kaolin poultice; Gels; The structure and properties of gels, application of gels in pharmacy.
Suppositories and Pessaries: method of their preparation, shapes and sizes, properties of an ideal suppository base; types of suppository bases: general methods of preparations of suppositories and their packaging.
Filtration: factors affecting filtration; mechanism of filtration; filter media and aids; filtration equipments (continuous rotary vacuum filter, the filter press and the edge filters)
Centrifugation: principle of centrifugation:
laboratory and large scale centrifuges