Instrumental Methods of analysis of pharmaceuticals.

 Absorption spectrophotometry, Infra-red spectroscopy, Fluorimetry, Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, N.M.R.

 Spectrometry: Gas-liquid chromatography; HPLC; Other methods; e.g. Polarography, Potentiometry, and Polarimetry, Mass Spectometry.

 (ii) Official standards for pharmaceutical chemicals and formulated products which are designed primarily to set limit of tolerance for the product at the time it reaches the patient. Such quality criteria which are specified in official monographs for pharmaceutical chemical include: A description of the drug or product, Solubility, Test for identity, Physical constants, Quantitative assay of pure chemical entity in the case of pharmaceutical chemicals, or of the principal active constituents in the case of formulated product, Limit tests to exclude excessive contamination, and Storage conditions. In addition to the above, the students should be aware of the source of impurities in pharmaceutical. The methods mentioned above should include Acid-base titrations, non aqueous acid base titrations, oxidation-reduction titrations, complexometric titrations, gravimetry and limit tests.


Level of Study: 300 Level