Bearing Capacity: Ultimate, safe and allowable bearing capacities. Bearing capacity factors; case of shallow and deep foundations, factor of safety, shape effect, footings under eccentric inclined loads.

                        Foundation: Type and choice of foundations: footings, rafts and pipe. Use and general characteristics of pipes, pile in sand, piles in clay. Negative skin friction; pile groups, bearing capacity and settlement of pile groups; efficiency of pile groups.

                        Earth Pressure: Pressure equilibrium. Active, passive and at-reset pressure, earth coefficients, computation of earth pressures using the Rankine and the Coulomb wedge theories, and Cumming’s method.

Earth pressures on retaining walls. Types and analysis of retaining walls. The use of bracing as lateral support in open cuts, anchored bulkheads free earth support method of analysis.

                        Slope Stability: Types and mechanics of slope failures. Theoretical and graphical solutions of slope stability problems. Effect of tension cracks on slope stability. Ordinary method of slices


Level of Study: 500 Level