Areas and Volumes. Longitudinal and cross-sectional profiling formation levels of new roads, cut and fills and various other sections. Determination of areas by approximate methods, area by double mention distance method. Volumes of earthwork – the prismoidal method, Edo – Area rule and the prismoidal correction.
Setting Out and Monitoring of Engineering Works:
Elementary Topographical Survey: Introduction to photogrammetry – aerial and ground photographs, vertical and near vertical photographs and the appropriate geometric relationship, causes of distortions, uses of aerial photographs for the production of plans – by Arundel method and by the use of photogrammetric equipment. Heighting from aerial photographs – application to contouring and profiling. Introduction to remote sensing equipment, image transmission from space, digital imagery. Compilation of topographic maps and plans from data acquired by the Landsat and SPOT satellites. Uses of photogrammetry and remote sensing to the engineers. Digital terrain modeling and applications.
Practical Work includes: More detailed theodolite reversing and minor triangulations, plane tablings exercises for detail survey and setting out of works; longitudinal and cross-section profiling, concept of parallax-use of parallax bar for height measurements; setting out of horizontal curves and building curves, plotting from aerial photographs and heighting and contouring.