Introduction: Traversing – instruments for traversing, theodolite traverses, computation and adjustment of ordinary traverses. Bow ditch and transit methods, reduced bearings and whole circle bearings. Uses of hand calculators and computers writing of basic programme for traverse and levels.


Application of traverses to setting out of tunnels, pipelines, etc. Tacheommetry methods for inclined line of sights. Substance heightening: study of self-reducing tachometers and electronic distance measuring equipment.

Trigonometric heightening – reciprocal and simultaneous reciprocal observations. Introduction to Photogrammetry and remote sensing. Practical work. Chain surveying exercises, compass traverses, running lines of levels and elementary sectioning and theodolite task.


Level of Study: 300 Level