Introduction: Definition, scope and subdivision of geology.
Aspects of geology and their relevance to Civil Engineering, Brief discussion on the origin and evolution of the planets, the earth and its relations to the sun, and other planets.
Structure and Composition of the Earth: The core, the mantle and the crust. Composition of the various layers. Radioactivity and magnetism of some rocks and minerals.
Exogenic processes (weathering and erosion)
Endogenic processes (Magma – its origin, Crystallization. Differential and solidification into rocks, earth quakes, volcanoes, rifting and continental drifts).
folding, faulting, joining and rifting
isostasy, changes in custatic sea levels, causes and effects
transgression and regression
tectonic and sedimentation
Geological structure and mapping. Rocks and minerals. Stratigraphy – time scale – fossils and their importance: special reference to Nigeria. Introduction to geology of Nigeria. Engineering Application – water supply, site investigation – Dams, dykes, etc.