1.1. Definition(s) of Soil:
Civil Engineer’s definition of soil; Geologist definition of soil; Agriculturalist soil definition.
1.2. Nature and Origin of Soil and Rocks:
Mineral content of soil; common types of soils: clay, silt, loamy soil, sand, gravel, etc.
Engineering Properties of Soil:
2.1. Volumetric Properties of Soil:Void ratio (e); porosity (n); degree of saturation (Sr).
2.2. Densities and Water Contents of Soil:
2.2.1. Soil Densities: Density (e) and Unit weight ; Bulk unit weight and density; Dry unit weight and density, specific gravity of soil particle (Gs). Relative Density (R.D.) Relationship between unit weights and densities of soil.
Laboratory test for moisture content; relationship between moisture content; density ; specific gravity , and degree of saturation ; cone penetration test.
Consistency Limits or Index Tests of Soils:
Shrinkage Limit (SL); liquid limit (L. L) and liquidity index (IL.); plastic limit (P.L.) and plasticity index (PI.).
Soil Classification (Grading):
General Basis for field identification and classification of soils.
Laboratory and in situ classification of soil.
Casagrande soil classification system (GW-SW)
Particle size Distribution/Gradation: sieve analysis. Effective size (D10), uniformity coefficient (U.C.).
Hydrometer Tests and Analysis for very fine soils.
Shear Strength of Soils:
Laboratory testing for shear strength (shear box test); soil friction and cohesion; Coulomb’s Law of soil shear strength; pure pressure; Mohr’s circle diagram and principal plane for soil; soil strength envelopes.
Soil Water, Permeability and Flow:
Flow of water through soils and Darcy’s Law; coefficient of permeability (K).
Relationship between permeability and other soil physical properties.
Active and passive earth pressure; surcharge loads and overburden loads, etc. Retaining walls.