Introduction to Pharmacognosy: Definition and relationship with other sciences, botanical nomenclature and keys, Basic plant cell and anatomy, Use of Microscopes, Photosynthesis. Organized (Cellular) Drugs: a)Microscopy, microscopy, biological and geographical sources, cultivation, collection and preparation, constituents, substitution, adulteration, uses of crude drugs e.g. senna leaf, cascara bark, rauwolfia root, ginger rhizome, clove flower buds; simple chemical tests. b) Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, algae polysaccharides (alginic acid, alginates, carrageneans and agar); c)Honey, gums and mucilages including pharmaceutical applications.
This is designed to introduce the students to laboratory work in pharmacognosy in order to enhance their knowledge in the science of the course. The laboratory work will include identification tests for sugars, genuine starches, gums, oils, fats and waxes, volatile oils.
Unorganized (Acellular) Drugs: a) Plant lipids such as fixed oils, fats and waxes, peanut, corn, olive, castor, soyabean and theobroma oils. Test and quality control; b)Volatile oils and resins (sources, composition, preparation of peppermint, caraway, lemon, eucalyptus and ginger oils); c)Balsams and oleoresins (Tolu and Peru balsams, Colophony resin)
Laboratory exposure to phytochemical methods, exercises on various types of chromatographic techniques, and identification tests for drugs from natural origin.
Phytochemistry and biogenesis of alkaloids (tropane, pyrrolizidine, quinoline, piperidine, isoquinoline, indole, bis-indole and steroidal types), as well as Glycosides (saponins, cardiac, anthraquinone, cyanogenetic types, flavonoids and tannins); Proteins, sweetners and botanical enzymes e. g. papain, bromelain, ficin; Chromatographic techniques (PC, TLC, GLC, HPLC, gel filtration, electrophoresis); Field Trips.
Cultivation of medicinal plants, Collection and preparation of crude drugs; Evaluation of crude drugs; Standardization of herbal potions and plant procedure in modern medicine; Fibres and surgical dressings; Role of regulatory bodies (WHO, NAFDAC, PCN) on herbal potions; Types of alternative medicines (acupuncture, ayurveda, homoeopathy, naturopathy, aromatherapy); Techniques of administering alternative medicine (bone setting blood letting, psychotherapy, faith healing, trephination, abdominal surgery); State of herbal medicine practice in Nigeria; Poisonous and regulated medicinal plants (botanical sources, constituents, chemical tests, biological activities, antidotes to poisoning by Solanum spp. Abrus
Plant collection, preparation and storage of herbarium specimens, macroscopy and microscopy of selected plants and crude drugs, evaluation and standardization of crude drugs, WHO quality control parameters.
a)Pharmacological and toxicological study of selected Nigerian medicinal plants (e. g. Neem, Rauwolfia, Catharanthus, Fagara) for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, diabetes, sickle cell disease; antimicrobial, anticancer and cytotoxic agents; geographical sources, local names, ethnomedicinal uses, macroscopy, microscopy and chemical constituents. b)Plants as sources of vitamins, including cod liver oil and yeast
e)Introduction to tissue culture as source of drugs