Introduction to Pharmacognosy: Definition and relationship with other sciences, botanical nomenclature and keys, Basic plant cell and anatomy, Use of Microscopes, Photosynthesis. Organized (Cellular) Drugs: a)Microscopy, microscopy, biological and geographical sources, cultivation, collection and preparation, constituents, substitution, adulteration, uses of crude drugs e.g. senna leaf, cascara bark, rauwolfia root, ginger rhizome, clove flower buds; simple chemical tests. b) Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, algae polysaccharides (alginic acid, alginates, carrageneans and agar); c)Honey, gums and mucilages including pharmaceutical applications.


 


Level of Study: 200 Level

 This is designed to introduce the students to laboratory work in pharmacognosy in order to enhance their knowledge in the science of the course. The laboratory work will include identification tests for sugars, genuine starches, gums, oils, fats and waxes, volatile oils.

 


Level of Study: 200 Level

    Unorganized (Acellular) Drugs: a) Plant lipids such as fixed oils, fats and waxes, peanut, corn, olive, castor, soyabean and theobroma oils. Test and quality control; b)Volatile oils and resins (sources, composition, preparation of peppermint, caraway, lemon, eucalyptus and ginger oils); c)Balsams and oleoresins (Tolu and Peru balsams, Colophony resin)

 


Level of Study: 200 Level

   Laboratory exposure to phytochemical methods, exercises on various types of chromatographic techniques, and identification tests for drugs from natural origin.

 


Level of Study: 300 Level

  Phytochemistry and biogenesis of alkaloids (tropane, pyrrolizidine, quinoline, piperidine, isoquinoline, indole, bis-indole and steroidal types), as well as Glycosides (saponins, cardiac, anthraquinone, cyanogenetic types, flavonoids and tannins); Proteins, sweetners and botanical enzymes e. g. papain, bromelain, ficin; Chromatographic techniques (PC, TLC, GLC, HPLC, gel filtration, electrophoresis); Field Trips.

 


Level of Study: 300 Level

 Cultivation of medicinal plants, Collection and preparation of crude drugs; Evaluation of crude drugs; Standardization of herbal potions and plant procedure in modern medicine; Fibres and surgical dressings; Role of regulatory bodies (WHO, NAFDAC, PCN) on herbal potions; Types of alternative medicines (acupuncture, ayurveda, homoeopathy, naturopathy, aromatherapy); Techniques of administering alternative medicine (bone setting blood letting, psychotherapy, faith healing, trephination, abdominal surgery); State of herbal medicine practice in Nigeria; Poisonous and regulated medicinal plants (botanical sources, constituents, chemical tests, biological activities, antidotes to poisoning by Solanum spp. Abrus


Level of Study: 400 Level

 Plant collection, preparation and storage of herbarium specimens, macroscopy and microscopy of selected plants and crude drugs, evaluation and standardization of crude drugs, WHO quality control parameters.

 


Level of Study: 400 Level


Investigations

 a)Pharmacological and toxicological study of selected Nigerian medicinal plants (e. g. Neem, Rauwolfia, Catharanthus, Fagara) for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, diabetes, sickle cell disease; antimicrobial, anticancer and cytotoxic agents; geographical sources, local names, ethnomedicinal uses, macroscopy, microscopy and chemical constituents. b)Plants as sources of vitamins, including cod liver oil and yeast

c)Pesticides and allergens: types and effects of botanical pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, molluscicides (their botanical sources, chemical nature and effects on man and animals), d)Methods of investigation in biogenetic studies (tracer techniques, precursor-product sequence, competitive feeding etc

e)Introduction to tissue culture as source of drugs

 

 


Level of Study: 500 Level

                           

 This course is a project assigned to the student under the supervision of one or more academic staff. The research result is bound and orally assessed.

 


Level of Study: 500 Level