General structure of the bacterial cell, the bacterial spore, its structure and resistance to inactivating agents.

Systematic classification of bacterial and characteristics of major groups - Taxonomy, protoplasts, spheroplasts and L-Forms. Nutritional requirements and growth of bacterial culture media and evolution of pure culture technique.

 Enumeration of microorganisms, Fungi and moulds; their importance in pharmacy, and medicine. The Richettstia, Chlamydia, Viruses (including HIV/AIDS) and viral replication. Introductory parasitology, Protozoal parasistes of public Health importance.

 


Level of Study: 200 Level

 The practical exercises in this course are designed to make the students appreciate some of the principles and techniques, which are unique to the field of microbiology. They include exercises on ubiquity of microorganisms: effect of environments and microscopic examinations of bacteria.

 


Level of Study: 200 Level

   The preparation and handling of sterile pharmaceutical products requires the adoption of techniques aimed at minimizing or completely eliminating the possibility of contamination by microorganisms, whether pathogenic or not.

 This is a theoretical and practical course on disinfection and sterilization designed to ensure basic knowledge acquired for performance of these skills. They include; General principles of physical and chemical sterilization.

 Chemical disinfections and microbiology of air; properties of ideal chemical disinfectant, and factors affecting the activity of chemical disinfectants and disinfection. The major groups of chemical disinfectants. Their properties, storage and uses. Method of evaluation of potency of disinfectants and antiseptics; Extinction Time and phenol Coefficient Methods. Bacteriostatic and Fungistatic activity determinations. Modes of action of chemical antibacterial agents used as disinfectants and antiseptics. The design of aseptic room and the provision of clean air.

 Official Methods of sterilization by heat; other methods of sterilization e.g., Uses, of gases, radiation and filtration.

Sterility Testing of Filtration  sterilized products and of bacteria proof filters.

 PMB 321 Practical Pharmaceutical Microbiology II (1 credit, 45hrs) This course is designed to augment and enhance understanding of the principles studied in PMB 312, for example exercises are carried out on factors affecting bactericidal activity, determination of phenol coefficient values etc.

 


Level of Study: 300 Level

The focus of this course is aseptic techniques and preparation of some sterile products such as eye drops and single-use parenteral large volume solutions.


Level of Study: 400 Level

 Parenteral products, injection (single and multi-dose), eye preparations and contact lens solutions their formulation, preparation and use; solvents for parenteral preparations; pyrogens and apyrogenic water, effects of routes of administration on parenteral products; Immunity, antigens, antibodies, their reactions and their applications, theories of AB production; hypersensitivity, allergy, atopy and other outcome of antigen-

antibody reactions; immunological products; production and quality control; types of bacterial and viral vaccines; toxoids; immunosera; diagnostic reagents e.g. Schick, Dick and Tubercullin Testing reagents.

 


Level of Study: 400 Level

Brief historical perspective of chemotherapy. Fundamental principles of rational chemotherapy - selective toxicity principle. Classification of antimicrobial agents with special reference to mechanism of action and chemical structures. Drugs inhibiting cell- wall synthesis - beta-lactam antibiotics. Inhibitors of protein synthesis-aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines. Drugs, which interfere with cell membrane integrity. Inhibitors of RNA and DNA Synthesis - refamyans and quinolones. Miscellaneous antimicrobials e.g, sulphonamides, trimethoprin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, lincomycin, chloramphenicol, Antifungal Agents. Antiviral Agents. Interferon and interferon inducers. Chemotherapy of some parasitic infections. Development of resistance to antibiotic by microorganisms: plasmid mediated and biochemical basis. Control of emergence of resistance.

 Introduction to Bacterial Genetics and Genetic engineering.

 


Level of Study: 500 Level

  General principle of spoilage and preservation against biodegradation. Raw Materials quality. Water and its purity, In-process Microbiological Controls; Quality Assurance of finished products; limiting number of viable organisms. Principle of preservation of multiphase systems. Factory and Hospital hygiene. Code of Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP). Fundamental of Industrial Fermentation. Use of Micro Organisms in Biotechnology. Search for Cultures. Approaches in Strain Development Genetic/Enzymatic engineering techniques. Selective isolation of Mutants, maintenance and Preservation. Media

development and processing. Fermentation and product recovery. Primary and Secondary 66 Metabolites.

 

 



Level of Study: 500 Level

    This course is a project assigned to the student under the supervision of one or more academic staff.


Level of Study: 500 Level