Level of Study: 400 Level

                        History of Microbiology and its place in Medicine

                        General characteristics of microorganisms cell structure and function

                        Classification and identification of microorganisms

                        Growth and metabolism of microorganisms

                        Microbial genetics and variation

                        Antimicrobial methods, sterilization and disinfection.

 

Practicals:

Safety procedures in the microbiology laboratory demonstration of tools

(a)

 

used in microbiology laboratory; use of the microscope.

(b)

Simple staining techniques – Gram’s and Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques.

(c)

Demonstration of different types of media including those used for various

microorganisms.


Level of Study: 400 Level

  The lectures encompass the nature and classification of bacteria of medical importance, mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence, metabolism and multiplication, and description/identification of specific bacterial agents of infectious diseases. In the practicals students will be expected to be able to list the basic safety procedures in the microbiology laboratory and demonstrate ability to:

                         Prepare and stain films/smears

                        Use the light microscope etc.

            Bacteriology Lectures

                        General properties and cultivation of bacteria

                        Microbiological specimens – collection, transportation, storage and processing and diagnostic methods.

                        Specific bacterial agents of infectious diseases

                        Staphylococci and streptococci

                        Clostridium and Bacillus species of medical importance.

                        Corynebacteria, mycobacteria

                        Enterobacteriacese

                        Spirochaetes and Niesceria

                        Hemophilia, Bordetella, Vibrio, Brucella,

                        Campylobacta

                        Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, chlarydia and Rickettsiae

                        Anti-bacterial agents and chemotherapy.

 

Practicals

                        Demonstration of plating–out technique from the body normal flora, aeromicrobes and surrounding environments.

                        Making of smears from samples and innoculation onto solid media and into

liquid media; isolation techniques

                        Demonstration  and  practicing  of  staining  techniques,  collection  and

examination of clinical samples/specimens such as blood, urine, CSF, swabs, stools etc.

                        Drug susceptibility testing.


Level of Study: 400 Level

   In the course of immunology, the following would be discussed:-

Innate immunity – factors affecting e.g. age, species specific anatomical factors (skin, membranes) etc. nutrition, hormones, acquired immunity – active and passive, factor affecting acquired immunity, antigens and their determinants, lymphoproliferative organs and their function in the immune biosynthesis of immunoglobulin , the thymus and tissue in the immune response, responses, structure and function of immunoglobulin, deficiencies in cell meditated immunity hypersensitivity – immediate and delayed anaphylaxis, immune tolerance. Tissue and organ transplantation. HLA system, immunosuppressant, malnutrition and immunity. Immunity and bacterial infections. Immunity and viral infection. Immunity and protozoan and helminth infestations. Immunity and fungal infections. Vaccination and immunization, autoimmunity. Host preservation of self (host surveillance) examples of autoimmune diseases, possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis. Immunohaematology - ABO system, rhesus incompatibility, immunity and malignancies, tumor antigens.


Level of Study: 400 Level

    Nature of a virus, properties and principles of virus structure, differences between viruses and bacteria. Effects of virus on its host cell, virus replication portals of virus entry. Pathogenesis of virus infection. Immune response to virus infection, viral vaccines and vaccination. Basic principles of virus classification.

 Practicals: Students will be expected to recognize the basic methods for culturing Viruses:

              Cell culture method

              Egg culture method

               Animal culture method.

 Description and identification of some medically important viruses.

 Respiratory disease viruses:

Influenzaviruses, Parainfluenzaviruses, Rhinoviruses, Respiratory Syncytialviruses, Adenoviruses.

 Central Nervous System (CNS) and Childhood disease viruses:

Enteroviruses, Measles, Mumps, Arboviruses, Rabies Viruses LCM etc.

 Herpertitis, Diarrhea, Faetus and infant disease viruses:

Herperitis A & B; Rotaviruses, Rubella, Vericella-zoster, other enteric viruses.

 New and emerging disease viruses: Retroviruses – HIV/AIDS

Lassavirus; viruses and human cancer.

 Practicals: Recognition and interpretation of the following serological tests for identification of medically important viruses.

                      Complement fixation test (CFT)

                      Neutralization test (NT)

                      Haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition test

                      ELISA tests.

 

  

Level of Study: 400 Level

 The lectures involve the nature and classification of medically important fungi. In the practicals, the students are expected to be able to demonstrate the ability to perform, Skin scrapings for diagnosis of superficial dermotomgcoses, recognize the microscopic appearance of different morphological types of fungi and recognize the colonial morphology of fungi on sabourands agar.

 

Introduction to mycology (fungi)

General feature and characterthis of fungi

Dermatophytes

Fungi causing superficial subcultures

Fugal agents of syrtemic nufioses

Actinomycetes and Nocordia

Opportunistic mycoses.

Antifungal Chemotherphy.

 

   

Level of Study: 400 Level

         Different types of parasites:

Classification, properties, structure and life cycle, including the identification of various stages,of the following protozoa.

 Plasmodium supp. Toxoplasma gondii, entomoeba histolytica, and gingivilis, opportunistic pathogen coli, trypanosome spp, leichincinnia spp.

 Practicals:

Students will be expected to demonstrate ability to perform thin and thick films. Demonstrate ability to perform, staining with giemsa, wrights fields and leishmans stains. demonstrate ability to recognize plasmodium spp, and tryponssoma spp. in a stained smear given a properly working light microscope. Demonstrate ability to prepare wet mounts and identify;

trophozoites

cysts

glardia

trichomonas

E. coli


Level of Study: 400 Level

 Lectures will be on various terminologies used in describing or identifying various microbial diseases and their effects on various organs of the body.

 Course Contents:

                        Terminologies in infections diseases I :

normal flora (microbiota), commensal, opportunistic and obligate pathogens. Pathogemnicity, urulence, invasiveness, toxins, toxoids and antitoins.

                         Terminologies in infections II:

Exogenous and endogenous infections, Endemic, epidemic and pandemic infections/disease, zoonosis, septicemia, bacteraremia and toxaemia, antoxibiotics, bacteriocines and vaccines.

                        Opportunistic infections

                        Nosocomial infections

                        Intracranial/central nervous system (CNS) infections.

                        Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT infections

                        Pulmonary infections

                        Enteic and intracbdominal infections


                        Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

                        Sexually transmitted diseases (STD)

                        Infections of bones, joints, skin and soft tenses

                        Septicemia, hepatitis and endocarditic

                        Food poisoning.

 N.B.     Details for the practicals are dully presented in the Department’s Student Laboratory Manual which each clinical student is expected to possess.

 

    

Level of Study: 400 Level

  The course will cover a comprehensive study and demonstration of vectors/insects responsible for the transmission of major diseases such as female anophelis mosquito in relation to malaria, aedes aegypti vector of yellow fever, similiun damnosum, the vector of onchoceriasis, tse-tse fly the vector of truypanosomiasis etc. different vectors would be demonstrated.


Level of Study: 400 Level

 

Development of medical helminthology, classification of helminthes general properties of helminths.

Description and identification of the following helminths;

Schistosoma app. (masoni haematobium and japonicum) paragonimus westernii, fasciolopsis burki, taenia spp, (saginata and solium) echinococus granulocus ascaris lumbri –coides, stronglyloides sterobius vermicularis, trichuris, trichura, onchocerca veculus,wucheraria bancroffti, Loa Loa, brugia malayi, drancuculus meanesis, acathochei- lonema spp, trichinelia spiralis.

 Practicals:

 Students will be expected to demonstrate the ability to prepare wet mounts from stool with saline and iodine. Demonstration ability to prepare thin and thick films for the identifications of microfilaria. Demonstrate ability to prepare wet mounts for urine. demonstrate ability to recognize helminthes from tissue biopsy.

                        Collection and processing of mycological specimens

                         Cultivation of fungi on sabourands agar and demonstration of mycelia growth.

 


Level of Study: 400 Level